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An Analysis of Hypothesis Growth Based on Tourism and Energy in Transition Economies: Panel Causality Test
The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between tourism incomes, energy consumption and economic growth in transition economies between 1995 and 2014. Within the scope of the analysis, it was tested whether there is horizontal section dependency between the panel forming variables and the model. The causality relation between variables was analyzed by Emirmahmutoğlu and Köse (2011) causality test. The results of the analysis showed that there is horizontal section dependency in the variables and model. It seems that there is a causal relation in causality test, Transition Economies; from tourism revenues to economic growth: in "Armenia, Kazakhstan, Russia, Albania and Hungary"; from economic growth to tourism income: in "Armenia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine, Bulgaria, Croatia, Romania, Slovakia"; from energy consumption to economic growth: "Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, Poland"; in Kazakhstan from economic growth towards energy use. In light of this information, the tourism-based growth hypothesis is valid in Armenia, Kazakhstan, Russia, Albania and Hungary. The energy-based growth hypothesis is also valid in "Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, Poland".

Tourism, energy, economic growth, transition economies, panel data analysis.

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