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Abstract


Tobacco Pipe Samples Examples of Bitlis Castle Excavation (2004-2008)
Bitlis Castle is a defensive structure with a triangular design located in the center of Bitlis. Even though the construction date of the castle is not clear, it is known that it was built by Badlis, one of the commanders of Alexander the Great. Excavations of Bitlis castle were initiated by Prof. Dr. Kadir PEKTAS in 2004 and the artifacts excavated were delivered to the Bitlis Ethnography Museum. There were 924 smoking pipes removed during the excavations between 2004 and 2008. The Bitlis Castle Excavation smoking pipes are divided into three main groups; tubed, baseless-tubed and tubed with a base. Except for one smoking pipe possibly shaped with a wheel, the other samples were prepared in a mold. The color of the pipe dough is gray, cream, light cream, white and dark brick colored. Fine sand, stone and limestone were used as additives in the pipe doughs. As a result of the lack of signature or craftsman name on determining the dates of the smoking pipes, they are dated to the end of the 17th century and the first quarter of the 20th century. In this study, some of the smoking pipes found in the Bitlis castle excavation were examined and evaluated with similar samples obtained from the excavations in Anatolia and outside Anatolia.

Keywords
Ottoman, Bitlis Castle, excavation, tobacco, tobacco pipe.


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